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Animation from pencils to pixels / Tony White

Main Author: White, Tony Publication: New York : Focal Press, 2013 Description: XVIII, 499 p. : il. + CD RomISBN: 978-0-240-80670-9Topical name: Animação gráfica | Animação cinematografica | Animação 2D | Animação 3D CDU: 7.02*AD/WHI Online Resources: Google books List(s) this item appears in: Artes Plásticas e Multimédia | Educação e Comunicação Multimédia
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Biblioteca IPBeja
7.02*AD/WHI (Browse shelf) Available 46349
Biblioteca IPBeja
7.02*AD/WHI (Browse shelf) Available 46348

Acknowledgments, p. xiii
Foreword, p. xv
Introduction, p. xvi

1 Development
Idea Creation, p. 2
Intellectual Property and Copyrights, p. 3
Purchasing or Optioning the Rights, p. 5
Public Domain Material, p. 7
Protecting Your Own Ideas, p. 7
Proof of Ownership, p. 8
Confidentiality Agreements, p. 8
Works Created for Your Employer, p. 10
"Endangered Species", p. 11
Evolving a Storyline, p. 12
The Hero's Journey: Story Structure, p. 14
Summarizing the Storyline, p. 16
"Endangered Species", p. 16
Scriptwriting, p. 17
"Endangered Species", p. 25
2 Character Design
The Evolution of 2D Character Design, p. 31
The Evolution of 3D Character Design, p. 32
Animation Style, p. 34
Guidelines for Character Design, p. 36
Shape and Proportion, p. 36
Head Heights, p. 37
Model Sheets, p. 38
Color Models, p. 39
Foreground/Background Compatibility, p. 39
"Endangered Species", p. 40
Concept and Environment Design, p. 41
"Endangered Species", p. 43

3 Project Financing
Animation Markets, p. 46
Movies, p. 47
Television, p. 47
Television Series and Specials, p. 48
Television Advertising, p. 49
Games, p. 50
The Web, p. 50
Direct-to-Markets, p. 52
"Endangered Species", p. 53
Scheduling and Budgeting, p. 53
Figuring the Cash Flow, p. 54
Contingency Planning, p. 56
Investment, Marketing, and Distribution Possibilities, p. 57
Pre-Sale Distribution Outlets, p. 60
"Endangered Species", p. 62
The Realities of Securing Production Finance, p. 63
Advice on Sales Agents, p. 67
Legal Advice, p. 69
Presentation Packages, p. 71
Log line, p. 71
Storyline Synopsis, p. 72
First-Draft Script, p. 72
Key Character Designs and Concept Art, p. 73
Sample Sequence Storyboard, p. 74
Animated Taster, p. 75
Development Budget, p. 76
Evidence of Ownership of Rights and Intellectual Property, p. 77
Key Personnel, p. 78
Project Web site, p. 79
Presentation of the Presentation Package, p. 79
Short and Independent Film Developing, p. 80
Presentation Packages, p. 82
Story Synopsis, p. 82
Series Bible, First-Draft Script, or "Game Plan", p. 82
Key Character Designs and Concept Art, p. 84
A Sample Sequence Storyboard, p. 84
Animated 'Taster" or Filmmaker's Showreel, p. 84
Project Budget and Schedule, p. 85
Evidence of Ownership of Rights and Intellectual Property, p. 87
Key Personnel, p. 87
"Endangered Species", p. 87

4 Rules of Filmmaking
Camera Positions, p. 94
Ultra-Wide Shot, p. 94
Wide Shot, p. 94
Mid Shot, p. 96
Close-Up, p. 96
Extreme Close-Up, p. 97
Combining Camera Positions in a Scene, p. 98
Camera Lenses, p. 103
Standard Lens (50-100mm Focal Length), p. 103
Wide-Angle Lens (20-35mm), p. 103
Long Lens (85-600mm), p. 104
Zoom Lens (28-80mm; 18-35mm; 70-300mm), p. 105
Fisheye Lens (6-16mm), p. 106
Lighting and Filters, p. 107
Camera Moves, p. 108
Fixed (Locked Down) Shot, p. 109
Tracking (Panning) Shot, p. 109
Zoom Shot, p. 110
Dolly (Crane) Shot, p. 111
Staging, p. 113
The Rule of the Line, p. 119
Shooting Down the Line, p. 122
Getting Around the Line, p. 123
The Cut-Away Shot, p. 124
Moving the Camera, p. 124
Moving the Actors, p. 125
Two Shot, Profile, p. 126
Two Shot, Three-Quarter, p. 127
One Shot, Three-Quarter Front, p. 127
One Shot, Three-Quarter Front Close-Up, p. 128
Eyeline, p. 129
Three or More Character Shots, p. 130
"Endangered Species", p. 130
Scene-to-Scene Transitions, p. 131
The Cut, p. 131
The Dissolve, p. 131
The Fade, p. 132
The Wipe, p. 132
The Ripple and Other Special Effects Dissolves, p. 133
"Endangered Species", p. 133
Screen Aspect Ratios, p. 134
"Endangered Species", p. 135

5 Soundtrack Recording and Editing
Talent Selection, p. 138
Voice Recording, p. 140
Recording for Animation, p. 143
Recording and Cataloging Dialogue, p. 144
Non-Voice Recording, p. 145
Music Track Recording, p. 149
Final Working Track, p. 153
The Track Breakdown, p. 153
Film Speeds and Conversion Ratios, p. 154
"Endangered Species", p. 156

6 Storyboarding and Animatics
Storyboards, p. 160
Storyboard Formats, p. 162
Creating the Storyboard, p. 164
Tips for Storyboarding, p. 168
Reusing Drawings, p. 168
Panning Sequences, p. 170
Numbering Frames, p. 172
Finish the Storyboard, p. 172
"Endangered Species", p. 173
The Animatic (or Leica Reel), p. 173
Creating the Animatic, p. 175
"Endangered Species", p. 181

7 Digital Desktop Production
Stages of Animation Production, p. 184
Animation (2D and 3D), p. 184
Backgrounds (2D), p. 186
Environments (3D), p. 186
Special Effects (2D and 3D), p. 187
Checking (2D), p. 188
Scanning (2D), p. 189
Coloring (2D), p. 190
Compositing (2D and 3D), p. 192
Editing (2D and 3D), p. 194
Final Dub (2D and 3D), p. 194
Digital to Film Transfer (2D and 3D), p. 195
Production Team and Workflow, p. 196
Director (2D and 3D), p. 196
Producer (2D and 3D), p. 197
Production Manager (2D and 3D), p. 197
Character Modeler (3D), p. 197
Production Designer (2D and 3D), p. 198
Animator (2D and 3D), p. 198
Assistant Animator (2D), p. 199
Inbetweener (2D), p. 199
Clean-Up Artist (2D), p. 200
Environmental Modeler (3D), p. 200
Background Artist (2D), p. 200
Checker (2D), p. 201
Scanner/Rostrum Cameraman (2D) 201
Inker (2D), p. 202
Colorist (2D), p. 202
Texturer(3D), p. 203
Lighting Artist (3D), p. 203
Compositor (2D and 3D), p. 203
Sound Editor (2D/3D), p. 204
Project Management, p. 204
Progress Charts, p. 204
Route Sheets, p. 206
"Endangered Species", p. 207

8 Principles of Animation
Key Poses, Breakdowns, and Inbetweens, p. 210
Timing, p. 213
Charts, p. 215
Slowing-ln and Slowing-Out, p. 217
Extreme Positions, p. 220
Arcs and Paths of Action, p. 221
Holds, p. 223
Emphasis, p. 224
Anticipation, p. 226
Weight and Weighted Movement, p. 227
Flexibility and Fluid Joint Movement, p. 232
Overlapping Action, p. 233
Generic Walks, p. 234
Keys, p. 235
Passing Position, p. 235
Inbetweens, p. 236
Walk Cycles, p. 241
Personality Walks and Timing, p. 242
Runs and Run Cycles, p. 244
Personality Runs and Timing, p. 245
Silhouetting, p. 248
Dialogue and Lip Sync, p. 249
Laughter, p. 256
Takes, p. 259
Eyes and Expressions, p. 260

9 Animating Step by Step
Key Poses, p. 266
Attitude and Dynamics, p. 270
Inbetweens, p. 272
Adding Mouths, p. 274
Staging and Camera Angles, p. 275
Working with Characters, p. 277
Extreme Action, p. 277
Clean-Up, p. 278
"Endangered Species", p. 282
Drawing for Animators, p. 284
Drawing Terminology, p. 287
Point of View (POV), p. 287
Horizon, p. 288
Perspective, p. 288
Vanishing Point, p. 289
Foreshortening, p. 289
Plane, p. 290
Drawing upon Life, p. 290

10 2D Animation Overview
It's All about Pencils and Paper, p. 296
Script, p. 297
Storyboard, p. 298
Soundtrack, p. 298
Track Breakdown, p. 299
Designs, p. 299
Animatic (Leica Reel), p. 300
Layouts, p. 300
Dope Sheets and Production Folders, p. 301
Pencil Tests, p. 302
Pose Tests, p. 304
Clean-Up, p. 305
Ink and Paint, p. 306
Backgrounds, p. 306
Checking, p. 307
Final Shoot/Composite, p. 308
Final Edit and Dub, p. 308
The Tools of the Trade, p. 309
Lightbox, p. 309
Peg Holes and Peg Bars, p. 310
Field Sizes, p. 312
Field Guides, p. 314
Field Size Limitations, p. 319
Overlarge Field Sizes, p. 320
TV Cut-Off and Safe Titling, p. 322
TV Cut-Off, p. 323
Safe Titling, p. 323
"Endangered Species", p. 324

11 2D Animation Basics
Keys, Inbetweens, and Timing, p. 332
Charts and Inbetween Counting, p. 336
Straight-Ahead Animation, p. 338
Slowing-ln and Slowing-Out, p. 339
Working in Thirds, p. 341
Howto Inbetween, p. 342
Paths of Action, p. 345
Superimpositions, p. 346
Multiple Superimposition, p. 347
Dope (Exposure) Sheets and Production Folders, p. 349
The Dope Sheet, p. 349
Frame Lines, p. 350
Animator's Notes, p. 352
Audio Breakdown, p. 353
Animation Layers, p. 354
Shooting or Camera Instructions, p. 355
Rules for Dope Sheets, p. 356
The Production Folder, p. 358
Special Instructions, p. 358
Material Used From Other Scenes, p. 359
Material Used in Other Scenes, p. 359
Attached Dope Sheet, p. 359
Flipping and Peg Bars, p. 360
Using Peg Bars, p. 360
Top Pegs vs. Bottom Pegs, p. 361
Bottom Pegs Flipping 362
Top Pegs Flipping 363
Whole Scene Flipping 364

12 Finessing 2D Animation
Tracebacks, p. 368
Eccentric Movement and Staggers, p. 370
Takes, p. 370
Squash, p. 371
Stretch, p. 372
Staggers, p. 373
Panning and Camera Moves, p. 375
Panning and Tracking, p. 375
Side Peg Pans, p. 378
Curved or Arced Pans, p. 378
Repeat Pans, p. 379
Panning Charts, p. 382
Zip Pans, p. 383
Camera Shake, p. 384
Pan Speed and Strobing Problems, p. 384
Shadows and Effects, p. 385
Rotoscoping, p. 390
13 2D Vector Animation
The Value of Limited Animation, p. 394
The Basic Approach, p. 394
Writing for the Web, p. 395
Storyboarding for the Web, p. 396
Web Characters, p. 396
Soundtracks, p. 397
TheAnimatic, p. 398
Vector Film Production, p. 399
Animation, p. 400
Design, p. 400
Backgrounds, p. 402
Inbetweening, p. 403
Lip Sync, p. 404
Fine Tuning, p. 405
Being Resourceful, p. 406
Non-Web Vector Animation, p. 407
Games Production, p. 409

14 The Paperless
Animation Studio
When the Animator Is Ready, the Software
Will Come, p. 412
The Technology, p. 413
Mirage, p. 415
Cintiq, p. 416
The Importance of Drawing, p. 417
2D or not 2D?, p. 418

15 3D Overview
The Importance of Drawing, p. 421
Cartesian Space, p. 424
Character Design, p. 425
Polygons, p. 426
Primitives, p. 427
Character Modeling, p. 429
Modeling to Suit Story Requirements, p. 431
Rigging and Weighting, p. 432
Forward and Inverse Kinematics, p. 433
Creating the Bone Hierarchy, p. 434
Adding Control Points, p. 435
Manipulators and Nulls, p. 435
Weighting, p. 436
Lighting and Texturing, p. 436
Environmental Modeling, p. 440
"Endangered Species", p. 442

16 Creating 3D Movement
Blocking Out, p. 444
Key Poses, p. 444
Inbetweens, p. 446
Fine Tuning, p. 447
Timing, Timelines, and F-Curves, p. 449
Constant Testing, p. 451
Traditional Principles of Movement, p. 452
The Value of Caricature vs. Motion Capture, p. 454
Sliders and Lip Sync, p. 455
"Endangered Species", p. 458
Scene 70, p. 459
v-01: Blocking In, p. 459
v-02: Add the Ups on Each Passing Position, p. 460
v-03: Foot Adjusts, p. 460
v-04: Increased Up on Passing Position, p. 461
v-05: Foot Tidy Up, p. 461
v-06: Side-to-Side Sway, p. 461
v-07: Rotation on Body, p. 462
v-08: Blocked-In Arm Action, p. 462
v-09: Left Arm Bend, p. 462
v-10: Increased Body Action and Start Head Turn, p. 463
v-11: Right Arm to Match Left, p. 463
v-12: Lighting Adjust and Final Rende, p. 463
Scene 71, p. 464
v-01: Blocking Out Positions, p. 464
v-02: Right Arm Blocking Out, p. 464
v-03: Body Adjust, p. 465
v-04: Left Arm Blocking Adjustments, p. 465
v-05: Body Adjust, p. 465
v-06: Right Forearm Adjus, p. 466
v-07: Left Forearm Adjust, p. 466
v-08: Hands Adjust, p. 466
v-09: Right Hand Fine Tune, p. 466
v-10: Left Hand Fine Tune, p. 466
v-11: Left Fingers Fine Tune, p. 467
v-12: Right Fingers Fine Tune, p. 467
v-13: Left Hand Adjust, p. 468
v-14: Balance Hand Action, p. 468
v-15: Lighting Adjust and Final Render, p. 468
In Conclusion, p. 469

A Oh, I Almost Forgot..., p. 471
Job-Hunting Advice, p. 472
Showcasing Your Work, p. 472
Drawing Portfolio, p. 472
Showreel, p. 473
Web Site, p. 474
Finding the Jobs, p. 475
Networking, p. 475
Recruitment Officers, p. 475
The Right Stuff, p. 476
The Value of Experience, p. 477
The Value of Familiarity, p. 477
Words of Encouragement, p. 477
Glossary, p. 479
Index, p. 493

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