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Handbook of environmental engineering / Frank R. Spellman

Main Author: Spellman, Frank R. Publication: Boca Raton : CRC Press, cop. 2016 Description: XXIII, 726 p.ISBN: 978-1-4987-0861-6CDU: 628 | 504.05
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Preface, p. XVII
A Note to the Reader: Will It Be Milk Toast or Hardtack?, p. XIX
Author, p. XXIII

Chapter 1 Introduction, p. 1
Environment, p. 1
Environmental Equilibrium and the Fly in the Ointment, p. 1
Pollution Defined, p. 3
Pollution Vocabulary, p. 4
Pollution Effects Easy to See, Feel, Taste, or Smell, p. 13
Unexpected Pollution, p. 14
Pollution and Environmental Science, Health, and Engineering, p. 14
Environmental Pollution and Technology: The Connection, p. 16
Consequences of Technological Development, p. 19
Environmental Administrative Laws and Regulations, p. 20
Administrative Procedure Act (APA), p. 20
Regulatory Process, p. 20
National Environmental Policy Act and Environmental Impact Statements, p. 22
Bottom Line, p. 23
References and Recommended Reading, p. 24

Chapter 2 Units, Standards of Measurement, and Conversions, p. 27
Units of Measurement: The Basics, p. 27
Conversion Factors, p. 27
Conversion Examples, p. 30
Temperature Conversions, p. 36
MKS System (SI Units), p. 38
Introduction to Energy, p. 39
Environmental Engineering Perspective on Energy, p. 39
Defining Energy, p. 39
Types of Energy, p. 40
Energy Use in the United States, p. 42
Measuring Energy, p. 42
Clean Energy Parameters and Calculations, p. 43
Electricity Reduction (Kilowatt-Hours), p. 43
Emission Factor, p. 43
Gallons of Gasoline Consumed, p. 43
Passenger Vehicles per Year, p. 44
Miles Driven by the Average Passenger Vehicle, p. 44
Therms of Natural Gas, p. 44
Barrels of Oil Consumed, p. 45
Tanker Trucks Filled with Gasoline, p. 45
Number of Incandescent Bulbs Switched to Compact Fluorescent Bulbs, p. 45
Home Energy Use, p. 48
Number of Tree Seedlings Grown for 10 Years, p. 49
Acres of U.S. Forests Storing Carbon for One Year, p. 50
Conversion Factor for Carbon Sequestered Annually by One Acre of
Average U.S. Forest, p. 51
Acres of U.S. Forest Preserved from Conversion to Croplands, p. 51
Propane Cylinders Used for Home Barbecues, p. 53
Railcars of Coal Burned, p. 53
Pounds of Coal Burned, p. 53
Tons of Waste Recycled Instead of Landfilled, p. 53
Garbage Trucks of Waste Recycled Instead of Landfilled, p. 54
Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions for One Year, p. 54
Wind Turbines Installed, p. 54
References and Recommended Reading, p. 54

Chapter 3 Math Operations Review, p. 57
Introduction, p. 57
Basic Math Terminology and Definitions, p. 57
Key Words, p. 58
Sequence of Operations, p. 58
Sequence of Operations Rules, p. 58
Sequence of Operations Examples, p. 59
Percent, p. 60
Significant Digits, p. 63
Powers and Exponents, p. 64
Averages (Arithmetic Mean), p. 66
Ratio, p. 68
Dimensional Analysis, p. 70
Basic Operation: Division of Units, p. 71
Basic Operation: Divide by a Fraction, p. 71
Basic Operation: Cancel or Divide Numerators and Denominators, p. 71
Threshold Odor Number, p. 75
Geometrical Measurements, p. 75
Definitions, p. 76
Relevant Geometric Equations, p. 76
Geometrical Calculations, p. 77
Force, Pressure, and Head Calculations, p. 84
Force and Pressure, p. 85
Head, p. 86
Review of Advanced Algebra Key Terms and Concepts, p. 90
Quadratic Equations, p. 92
Quadratic Equations and Environmental Practice, p. 92
Key Terms, p. 93
Quadratic Equations: Theory and Application, p. 93
Derivation of the Quadratic Equation Formula, p. 94
Using the Quadratic Equation, p. 95
Trigonometric Ratios, p. 95
Trigonometric Functions and the Environmental Practitioner, p. 96
Trigonometric Ratios or Functions, p. 96
References and Recommended Reading, p. 98

Chapter 4 Environmental Modeling and Algorithms, p. 99
Introduction, p. 99
Basic Steps for Developing an Effective Model, p. 100
What Are Models Used For?, p. 100
Media Material Content, p. 101
Material Content: Liquid Phases, p. 103
Phase Equilibrium and Steady State, p. 105
Math Operations and Laws of Equilibrium, p. 106
Solving Equilibrium Problems, p. 106
Laws of Equilibrium, p. 107
Chemical Transport Systems, p. 110
Algorithms: What Are They?, p. 111
Expressing Algorithms, p. 112
General Algorithm Applications, p. 112
Environmental Practice Algorithm Applications, p. 114
Dispersion Models, p. 114
Screening Tools, p. 115
References and Recommended Reading, p. 115

Chapter 5 Statistics Review, p. 117
Statistical Concepts, p. 117
Probability and Statistics, p. 118
Measure of Central Tendency, p. 119
Symbols, Subscripts, Basic Statistical Terms, and Calculations, p. 119
Mean, p. 120
Median, p. 121
Mode, p. 121
Range, p. 121
Distribution, p. 123
Normal Distribution, p. 123
Standard Deviation, p. 125
Coefficient of Variation, p. 126
Standard Error of the Mean, p. 126
Covariance, p. 127
Simple Correlation Coefficient, p. 128
Variance of a Linear Function, p. 129
Sampling Measurement Variables, p. 131
Simple Random Sampling, p. 131
Stratified Random Sampling, p. 134
Sampling—Discrete Variables, p. 137
Random Sampling, p. 137
Sample Size, p. 138
Cluster Sampling for Attributes, p. 138
Transformations, p. 139
Chi-Square Tests, p. 139
Test of Independence, p. 139
Test of a Hypothesized Count, p. 140
Bartlett’s Test of Homogeneity of Variance, p. 141
Comparing Two Groups by the t Test, p. 143
t Test for Unpaired Plots, p. 143
t Test for Paired Plots, p. 145
Comparison of Two or More Groups by Analysis of Variance, p. 147
Complete Randomization, p. 147
Multiple Comparisons, p. 149
Randomized Block Design, p. 152
Latin Square Design, p. 155
Factorial Experiments, p. 157
Split-Plot Design, p. 162
Missing Plots, p. 167
Regression, p. 169
Simple Linear Regression, p. 169
How Well Does the Regression Line Fit the Data?, p. 171
Coefficient of Determination, p. 172
Confidence Intervals, p. 172
Multiple Regression, p. 174
Curvilinear Regressions and Interactions, p. 179
References and Recommended Reading, p. 187

Chapter 6 Fundamental Engineering Concepts, p. 189
Introduction, p. 189
Resolution of Forces, p. 190
Slings, p. 192
Inclined Plane, p. 194
Properties of Materials and Principles of Mechanics, p. 196
Properties of Materials, p. 196
Principles of Mechanics, p. 202
References and Recommended Reading, p. 209

Chapter 7 Air Pollution, p. 211
Introduction to Air, p. 211
Definition of Key Terms, p. 213
Components of Air: Characteristics and Properties, p. 215
Atmospheric Nitrogen, p. 215
Atmospheric Oxygen, p. 218
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, p. 219
Atmospheric Argon, p. 220
Atmospheric Neon, p. 220
Atmospheric Helium, p. 221
Atmospheric Krypton, p. 221
Atmospheric Xenon, p. 222
Atmospheric Hydrogen, p. 223
Atmospheric Water, p. 223
Atmospheric Particulate Matter, p. 224
Air for Combustion, p. 225
Air for Power, p. 225
Gas Physics, p. 226
Material Balance, p. 226
Compressibi1ity, p. 226
Gas Laws, p. 226
Flow Rate, p. 229
Gas Conversions, p. 229
Gas Velocity, p. 230
Gas Density, p. 231
Heat Capacity and Enthalpy, p. 231
Heat and Energy in the Atmosphere, p. 231
Viscosity, p. 232
Flow Characteristics, p. 233
Particle Physics, p. 234
Surface Area and Volume, p. 234
Aerodynamic Diameter, p. 235
Particle Size Categories, p. 236
Size Distribution, p. 238
Particle Formation, p. 238
Collection Mechanisms, p. 240
Inertial Impaction and Interception, p. 240
Brownian Diffusion, p. 241
Gravitational Settling, p. 242
Electrostatic Attraction, p. 242
Atmospheric Chemistry and Related Phenomena, p. 243
Photochemical Reaction—Smog Production, p. 243
Air Quality, p. 244
Earth’s Heat Balance, p. 244
Insolation, p. 245
Heat Distribution, p. 246
Air Quality Management, p. 248
Clean Air Act, p. 248
Title 1: Attainment and Maintenance of NAAQS, p. 249
Title 2: Mobile Sources, p. 251
Title 3: Air Toxics, p. 251
Title 4: Acid Deposition, p. 251
Title 5: Permits, p. 252
Title 6: Ozone and Global Climate Protection, p. 252
Title 7: Enforcement, p. 253
Clean Air Act Amendment Requirements, p. 253
State Implementation Plans, p. 253
New Source Review, p. 254
Air Quality Monitoring, p. 255
Visibility, p. 256
Pollutant Dispersion, p. 256
Vapor-Plume-Induced Icing, p. 256
Air Pollution Mechanics, p. 257
Atmospheric Dispersion, Transportation, and Deposition, p. 257
Dispersion Models, p. 263
Major Air Pollutants, p. 264
Sulfur Dioxide, p. 265
Nitrogen Oxides, p. 266
Carbon Monoxide, p. 266
Volatile Organic Compounds, p. 266
Ozone and Photochemical Smog, p. 268

Carbon Dioxide, p. 269
Particulate Matter, p. 269
Lead, p. 270
Air Pollution Control Technology, p. 270
Air Pollution Control Choices, p. 271
Air Pollution Control Equipment and Systems, p. 272
Removal of Dry Particulate Matter, p. 272
Removal of Gaseous Pollutants: Stationary Sources, p. 275
Indoor Air Quality, p. 279
Legionnaires’ Disease, p. 280
Sick Building Syndrome, p. 281
Indoor Air Pollution, p. 282
Common Indoor Air Pollutants in the Home, p. 282
Building Factors Affecting Indoor Air Quality, p. 284
Types of Workplace Air Pollutants, p. 285
Sources of Workplace Air Pollutants, p. 286
Indoor Air Contaminant Transport, p. 287
Indoor Air Dispersion Parameters, p. 289
Common Airflow Pathways, p. 290
Major Indoor Air Quality Contaminants, p. 291
Asbestos Exposure, p. 291
Silica Exposure, p. 294
Formaldehyde Exposure, p. 294
Lead Exposure, p. 296
Mold Control, p. 298
References and Recommended Reading, p. 300

Chapter 8 Water Pollution, p. 303
Introduction to Water, p. 303
Surface Water, p. 304
Surface Water Pollutants, p. 305
Emerging Contaminants, p. 307
Endocrine Disruptors, p. 309
Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products, p. 316
Personal Care Products in the Environment, p. 331
Drug Classes and Environmental Occurrences, p. 336
Illicit Drugs in Wastewater, p. 343
Impact of Surface Water Pollution, p. 344
Groundwater, p. 344
Groundwater Uses and Sources, p. 345
Wetlands, p. 347
Water Treatment, p. 348
Purpose of Water Treatment, p. 348
Pretreatment, p. 350
Hardness Treatment, p. 357
Corrosion, p. 358
Coagulation, p. 362
Flocculation, p. 364
Sedimentation, p. 365
Filtration, p. 365
Disinfection, p. 372
Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, p. 404
Arsenic Exposure, p. 404
Arsenic Removal Technologies, p. 405
Wastewater Treatment, p. 411
Wastewater Terminology and Definitions, p. 412
Measuring Plant Performance, p. 415
Wastewater Sources and Characteristics, p. 418
Wastewater Collection Systems, p. 422
Preliminary Wastewater Treatment, p. 424
Primary Wastewater Treatment (Sedimentation), p. 431
Secondary Treatment, p. 437
Activated Sludge, p. 459
Disinfection of Wastewater, p. 473
Advanced Wastewater Treatment, p. 483
Wastewater Solids (Sludge/Biosolids) Handling, p. 490
Sludge Thickening, p. 497
Sludge Stabilization, p. 501
Land Application of Biosolids, p. 518
References and Recommended Reading, p. 520

Chapter 9 Soil Quality, p. 535
Introduction, p. 535
Evolution of Soil, p. 536
What Is Soil?, p. 538
Soil Basics, p. 538
Soil Properties, p. 539
Soil Formation, p. 540
Soil Fertility, p. 541
Soil Pollution, p. 542
Gaseous and Airborne Pollutants, p. 543
Infiltration of Contaminated Surface Water, p. 543
Land Disposal of Solid and Liquid Waste Materials, p. 543
Stockpiles, Tailings, and Spoils, p. 543
Dumps, p. 544
Salt Spreading on Roads, p. 544
Animal Feedlots, p. 544
Fertilizers and Pesticides, p. 544
Accidental Spills, p. 545
Composting of Leaves and Other Wastes, p. 545
Industrial Practices and Soil Contamination, p. 545
Underground Storage Tanks: The Problem, p. 548
Corrosion Problems, p. 548
Faulty Construction, p. 549
Faulty Installation, p. 549
Piping Failures, p. 549
Spills and Overfills, p. 549
Compatibility of Contents and UST, p. 549
Chemical Release Risk Assessment, p. 550
Exposure Pathways, p. 550
Remediation of UST-Contaminated Soils, p. 550
In Situ Technologies, p. 551
Non-//i Situ Technologies, p. 555
References and Recommended Reading, p. 558

Chapter 10 Solid and Hazardous Waste, p. 561
Introduction, p. 561
History of Solid Waste Regulation in the United States, p. 563
Solid Waste Characteristics, p. 563
Sources of Municipal Solid Waste, p. 564
Residential Sources of MSW, p. 565
Commercial Sources of MSW, p. 565
Institutional Sources of MSW, p. 565
Construction and Demolition Sources of MSW, p. 565
Municipal Services Sources of MSW, p. 566
Treatment Plant Site Sources of MSW, p. 566
What Is a Hazardous Substance?, p. 567
Hazardous Materials, p. 567
Hazardous Substances, p. 567
Extremely Hazardous Substances, p. 568
Toxic Chemicals, p. 568
Hazardous Wastes, p. 568
Hazardous Chemicals, p. 568
Again, What Is a Hazardous Substance?, p. 568
What Is a Hazardous Waste?, p. 570
Where Do Hazardous Wastes Come From?, p. 570
Why Are We Concerned about Hazardous Wastes?, p. 571
Hazardous Waste Legislation, p. 571
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, p. 571
CERCLA, p. 572
Waste Control Technology, p. 572
Waste Minimization, p. 573
Recycling, p. 574
Treatment Technologies, p. 576
Biological Treatment, p. 576
Thermal Processes, p. 577
Activated Carbon Sorption, p. 577
Electrolytic Recovery Techniques, p. 577
Air Stripping, p. 578
Stabilization and Solidification, p. 578
Filtration and Separation, p. 578
Ultimate Disposal, p. 578
Deep-Well Injection, p. 579
Surface Impoundments, p. 579
Waste Piles, p. 580
Landfilling, p. 580
References and Recommended Reading, p. 581

Chapter 11 Industrial Hygiene, p. 583
What Is Industrial Hygiene?, p. 583
Industrial Hygiene Terminology, p. 583
Industrial Hygiene Terms and Concepts, p. 583
History of Industrial Hygiene, p. 598
OSHA, NIOSH, and Industrial Hygiene, p. 599
Industrial Hygiene and Workplace Stressors, p. 600
Chemical Stressors, p. 601
Physical Stressors, p. 602
Biological Stressors, p. 602
Ergonomic Stressors, p. 603
Industrial Hygiene: Areas of Concern, p. 603
Industrial Toxicology, p. 603
Airborne Contaminants, p. 605
Routes of Entry, p. 605
Industrial Health Hazards, p. 606
Environmental Controls, p. 607
Engineering Controls, p. 607
Work Practice Controls, p. 607
Administrative Controls, p. 608
Personal Protective Equipment, p. 609
Hazard Communication, p. 609
HazCom and the Environmental Professional, p. 610
Modification of the Hazard Communication Standard, p. 610
Occupational Environmental Limits, p. 615
Exposure Limits, p. 615
Air Monitoring and Sampling, p. 617
Air Sample Volume, p. 617
Limit of Detection, p. 617
Limit of Quantification, p. 617
Calibration Requirements, p. 618
Types of Air Sampling, p. 618
Analytical Methods for Gases and Vapors, p. 618
Air Monitoring vs. Air Sampling, p. 619
Air Sampling for Airborne Particulates, p. 620
Dusts, p. 621
Duration of Exposure, p. 621
Particle Size, p. 621
Particulate Collection, p. 622
Analysis of Particulates, p. 623
Health and Environmental Impacts of Particulates, p. 623
Control of Particulates, p. 623
Air Sampling for Gases and Vapors, p. 624
Types of Air Samples, p. 624
Methods of Sampling, p. 624
Air Sampling Collection Processes, p. 624
Calibration of Air Sampling Equipment, p. 625
Direct-Reading Instruments for Air Sampling, p. 625
Air Monitoring and Confined Space Entry, p. 627
Noise and Vibration, p. 628
OSH A Noise Control Requirements, p. 628
Noise and Hearing Loss Terminology, p. 629
Occupational Noise Exposure, p. 633
Determining Workplace Noise Levels, p. 633
Engineering Control for Industrial Noise, p. 634
Audiometric Testing, p. 635
Noise Units, Relationships, and Equations, p. 636
Industrial Vibration Control, p. 639
Radiation, p. 640
Radiation Safety Program Acronyms and Definitions, p. 640
Ionizing Radiation, p. 643
Effective Half-Life, p. 643
Alpha Radiation, p. 644
Beta Radiation, p. 644
Gamma Radiation and X-Rays, p. 645
Radioactive Decay Equations, p. 646
Radiation Dose, p. 647
Non-Ionizing Radiation, p. 647
OSH A Radiation Safety Requirements, p. 649
Radiation Exposure Controls, p. 651
Radiation Exposure Training, p. 652
Thermal Stress, p. 652
Thermal Comfort, p. 652
Heat Index, p. 652
Body’s Response to Heat, p. 653
Heat Disorders and Health Effects, p. 654
Cold Hazards, p. 655
Wind-Chill Factor, p. 656
Cold Stress Prevention, p. 656
Ventilation, p. 657
Concepts of Ventilation, p. 657
Local Exhaust Ventilation, p. 660
General and Dilution Ventilation, p. 661
Personal Protective Equipment, p. 661
OSH A PPE Standard, p. 661
Head Protection, p. 663
Hand Protection, p. 664
Eye and Face Protection, p. 664
Foot Protection, p. 664
Full Body Protection: Chemical Protective Clothing, p. 664
Description of Protective Clothing, p. 665
Inspection, Storage, and Maintenance of Protective Clothing, p. 670
Respiratory Protection, p. 671
Engineering Design and Controls for Safety, p. 672
Codes and Standards, p. 673
Plant Layout, p. 674
Illumination, p. 675
High-Hazard Work Areas, p. 675
Personal and Sanitation Facilities, p. 676
References and Recommended Reading, p. 676

Glossary, p. 679

Index, p. 707

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