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Biochemical engineering fundamentals / James E. Bailey, David F. Ollis

Main Author: Bailey, James E. Coauthor: Ollis, David F. Edition: Second edition Publication: New York : McGraw-Hill, 1977 Description: 984 p.ISBN: 0-07-066601-6 Topical name: Bioquimica
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Item type Location Call number Status Date due Barcode Course reserves
Monografia
Biblioteca IPBeja
663/BAI (Browse shelf) Available 33396

Engenharia do Ambiente Dimensionamento de ETAR II 3º Ano / 2º Semestre

Monografia
Biblioteca IPBeja
663/BAI (Browse shelf) Available 33464

Índice
Preface, p. XIX
Chapter 1 A Little Microbiology, p. 1
1.1 Biophysics and the Cell Doctrine, p. 3
1.2 The Structure of Cells, p. 3
1.2.1 Procaryotic Cells, p. 3
1.2.2 Eucaryotic Cells, p. 6
1.2.3 Cell Fractionation, p. 9
Example 1.1: Analysis of Particle Motion in a Centrifuge, p. 9
1.3 Important Cell Types, p. 12
1.3.1 Bacteria, p. 13
1.3.2 Yeasts, p. 16
1.3.3 Molds, p. 18
1.3.4 Algae and Protozoa, p. 21
1.3.5 Animal and Plant Cells, p. 22
1.4 A Perspective for Further Study, p. 24
Problems, p. 24
References, p. 26
Chapter 2 Chemicals of Life, p. 27
2.1 Lipids, p. 29
2.1.1 Fatty Acids and Related Lipids, p. 29
2.1.2 Fat-soluble Vitamins, Steroids, and Other Lipids, p. 32
2.2 Sugars and Polysaccharides, p. 34
2.2.1 D-Glucose and Other Monosaccharides, p. 34
2.2.2 Disaccharides to Polysaccharides, p. 36
2.2.3 Cellulose, p. 38
2.3 From Nucleotides to RNA and DNA, p. 42
2.3.1 Building Blocks, an Energy Carrier, and Coenzymes, p. 42
2.3.2 Biological Information Storage: DNA and RNA, p. 46
2.4 Amino Acids into Proteins, p. 53
2.4.1 Amino Acid Building Blocks and Polypeptides, p. 55

2.4.2 Protein Structure, p. 60
2.4.3 Primary Structure, p. 61
2.4.4 Three-Dimensional Conformation: Secondary and Tertiary
Structure, p. 63
2.4.5 Quaternary Structure and Biological Regulation, p. 68
2.5 Hybrid Biochemicals, p. 70
2.5.1 Cell Envelopes: Peptidoglycan and Lipopolysaccharides, p. 71
2.5.2 Antibodies and Other Glycoproteins, p. 74
2.6 The Hierarchy of Cellular Organization, p. 76
Problems, p. 79
References, p. 85
Chapter 3 The Kinetics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions, p. 86
3.1 The Enzyme-Substrate Complex and Enzyme Action, p. 92
3.2 Simple Enzyme Kinetics with One and Two Substrates, p. 95
3.2.1 Michaelis-Menten Kinetics, p. 101
3.2.2 Evaluation of Parameters in the Michaelis-Menten
Equation, p. 105
3.2.3 Kinetics for Reversible Reactions, Two-Substrate
Reactions, and Cofactor Activation, p. 108
3.3 Determination of Elementary-Step Rate Constants, p. 111
3.3.1 Relaxation Kinetics, p. 111
3.3.2 Some Results of Transient-Kinetics Investigation, p. 114
3.4 Other Patterns of Substrate Concentration Dependence, p. 114
3.4.1 Substrate Activation and Inhibition, p. 115
3.4.2 Multiple Substrates Reacting on a Single Enzyme, p. 116
3.5 Modulation and Regulation of Enzymatic Activity, p. 120
3.5.1 The Mechanisms of Reversible Enzyme Modulation, p. 122
3.5.2 Analysis of Reversible Modulator Effects on Enzyme
Kinetics, p. 124
Other Influences on Enzyme Activity, p. 129
3.6.1 The Effect of pH on Enzyme Kinetics in Solution, p. 130
3.6.2 Enzyme Reaction Rates and Temperature, p. 132
3.6 Enzyme Deactivation, p. 135
3.7.1 Mechanisms and Manifestations of Protein Denaturation, p. 136
3.7.2 Deactivation Models and Kinetics, p. 136
3.7.3 Mechanical Forces Acting on Enzymes, p. 144
3.7.4 Strategies for Enzyme Stabilization, p. 146
Enzyme Reactions in Heterogeneous Systems, p. 148
Problems, p. 152
References, p. 156
Chapter 4 Applied Enzyme Catalysis, p. 157
4.1 Applications of Hydrolytic Enzymes, p. 161
4.1.1 Hydrolysis of Starch and Cellulose, p. 163
Example 4.1: Influence of Crystallinity on Enzymatic Hydrolysis
of Cellulose, p. 169
4.1.2 Proteolytic Enzymes, p. 172
4.1.3 Esterase Applications, p. 175


4.1.4 Enzyme Mixtures, Pectic Enzymes, and Additional
Applications, p. 176
4.2 Other Applications of Enzymes in Solution, p. 177
4.2.1 Medical Applications of Enzymes, p. 177
4.2.2 Nonhydrolytic Enzymes in Current and Developing
Industrial Technology, p. 179
4.3 Immobilized-Enzyme Technology, p. 180
4.3.1 Enzyme Immobilization, p. 181
4.3.2 Industrial Processes, p. 189
4.3.3 Medical and Analytical Applications of Immobilized
Enzymes, p. 194
4.3.4 Utilization and Regeneration of Cofactors, p. 199
4.4 Immobilized Enzyme Kinetics, p. 202
4.4.1 Effects of External Mass-Transfer Resistance, p. 204
4.4.2 Analysis of Intraparticle Diffusion and Reaction, p. 208
Example 4.2: Estimation of Diffusion and Intrinsic Kinetic
Parameters for an Immobilized Enzyme
Catalyst, p. 216
4.4.3 Simultaneous Film and Intraparticle Mass-Transfer
Resistances, p. 218
4.4.4 Effects of Inhibitors, Temperature, and pH on
Immobilized Enzyme Catalytic Activity and Deactivation, p. 220
4.5 Concluding Remarks, p. 222
Problems, p. 222
References, p. 226
Chapter 5 Metabolic Stoichiometry and Energetics, p. 228
5.1 Thermodynamic Principles, p. 233
5.2 Metabolic Reaction Coupling: ATP and NAD, p. 235
5.2.1 ATP and Other Phosphate Compounds, p. 235
5.2.2 Oxidation and Reduction: Coupling via NAD, p. 237
5.3 Carbon Catabolism, p. 239
5.3.1 Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway, p. 239
5.3.2 Other Carbohydrate Catabolic Pathways, p. 241
5.4 Respiration, p. 245
5.4.1 The TCA Cycle, p. 246
5.4.2 The Respiratory Chain, p. 246
5.5 Photosynthesis: Tapping the Ultimate Source, p. 251
5.5.1 Light-Harvesting, p. 251
5.5.2 Electron Transport and Photophosphorylation, p. 252
5.6 Biosynthesis, p. 253
5.6.1 Synthesis of Small Molecules, p. 254
5.6.2 Macromolecule Synthesis, p. 261
5.7 Transport across Cell Membranes, p. 262
5.7.1 Passive and Facilitated Diffusion, p. 263
5.7.2 Active Transport, p. 265
5.8 Metabolic Organization and Regulation, p. 269
5.8.1 Key Crossroads and Branch Points in Metabolism, p. 270
5.8.2 Enzyme Level Regulation of Metabolism, p. 271

5.9 End Products of Metabolism, p. 273
5.9.1 Anaerobic Metabolism (Fermentation) Products, p. 274
5.9.2 Partial Oxidation and Its End Products, p. 275
5.9.3 Secondary Metabolite Synthesis, p. 277
5.10 Stoichiometry of Cell Growth and Product Formation, p. 277
5.10.1 Overall Growth Stoichiometry: Medium Formulation
and Yield Factors, p. 280
5.10.2 Elemental Material Balances for Growth, p. 285
5.10.3 Product Formation Stoichiometry, p. 289
5.10.4 Metabolic Energy Stoichiometry: Heat Generation
and Yield Factor Estimates, p. 292
5.10.5 Photosynthesis Stoichiometry, p. 297
5.11 Concluding Remarks, p. 300
Problems, p. 300
References, p. 305
Chapter 6 Molecular Genetics and Control Systems, p. 307
6.1 Molecular Genetics, p. 307
6.1.1 The Processes of Gene Expression, p. 308
6.1.2 Split Genes and mRNA Modification in Eucaryotes, p. 314
6.1.3 Posttranslational Modifications of Proteins, p. 316
6.1.4 Induction and Repression: Control of Protein Synthesis, p. 317
6.1.5 DNA Replication and Mutation, p. 321
6.1.6 Overview of Information Flow in the Cell, p. 326
6.2 Alteration of Cellular DNA, p. 327
6.2.1 Virus and Phages: Lysogeny and Transduction, p. 327
6.2.2 Bacterial Transformation and Conjugation, p. 330
6.2.3 Cell Fusion, p. 332
6.3 Commercial Applications of Microbial Genetics and Mutant
Populations, p. 335
6.3.1 Cellular Control Systems: Implications for Medium
Formulation, p. 335
6.3.2 Utilization of Auxotrophic Mutants, p. 336
6.3.3 Mutants with Altered Regulatory Systems, p. 339
6.4 Recombinant DNA Technology, p. 340
6.4.1 Enzymes for Manipulating DNA, p. 341
6.4.2 Vectors for Escherichia coli, p. 345
6.4.3 Characterization of Cloned DNAs, p. 346
6.4.4 Expression of Eucaryotic Proteins in E. coli, p. 349
6.4.5 Genetic Engineering Using Other Host Organisms, p. 353
6.4.6 Concluding Remarks, p. 356
6.5 Growth and Reproduction of a Single Cell, p. 357
6.5.1 Experimental Methods: Flow Cytometry and
Synchronous Cultures, p. 358
6.5.2 The Cell Cycle of E. coli, p. 360
6.5.3 The Eucaryotic Cell Cycle, p. 361
Problems, p. 364
References, p. 370





Chapter 7 Kinetics of Substrate Utilization, Product Formation, and Biomass Production in Cell Cultures, p. 373
7.1 Ideal Reactors for Kinetics Measurements, p. 378
7.1.1 The Ideal Batch Reactor, p. 378
7.1.2 The Ideal Continuous-Flow Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR), p. 380
7.2 Kinetics of Balanced Growth, p. 382
7.2.1 Monod Growth Kinetics, p. 383
7.2.2 Kinetic Implications of Endogenous and Maintenance
Metabolism, p. 388
7.2.3 Other Forms of Growth Kinetics, p. 391
7.2.4 Other Environmental Effects on Growth Kinetics, p. 392
7.3 Transient Growth Kinetics, p. 394
7.3.1 Growth-Cycle Phases for Batch Cultivation, p. 394
7.3.2 Unstructured Batch Growth Models, p. 403
7.3.3 Growth of Filamentous Organisms, p. 405
7.4 Structured Kinetic Models, p. 408
7.4.1 Compartmental Models, p. 409
7.4.2 Metabolic Models, p. 413
7.4.3 Modeling Cell Growth as an Optimum Process, p. 418
7.5 Product Formation Kinetics, p. 421
7.5.1 Unstructured Models, p. 421
Example 7.1: Sequential Parameter Estimation for a Simple
Batch Fermentation, p. 424
7.5.2 Chemically Stuctured Product Formation Kinetics Models, p. 426
7.5.3 Product Formation Kinetics Based on Molecular
Mechanisms: Genetically Structured Models, p. 429
7.5.4 Product Formation Kinetics by Filamentous Organisms, p. 432
Example 7.2: A Morphologically Structured Kinetic Model for
Cephalosporin C Production, p. 434
7.6 Segregated Kinetic Models of Growth and Product Formation, p. 438
7.7 Thermal-Death Kinetics of Cells and Spores, p. 441
7.8 Concluding Remarks, p. 445
Problems, p. 446
References, p. 454
Chapter 8 Transport Phenomena in Bioprocess Systems, p. 457
8.1 Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Cellular Systems, p. 459
8.1.1 Basic Mass-Transfer Concepts, p. 460
8.1.2 Rates of Metabolic Oxygen...

9.6 Multiphase Bioreactors, p. 606
9.6.1 Conversion of Heterogeneous Substrates, p. 607
Example 9.2: Agitated-CSTR Design for a Liquid-Hydrocarbon
Fermentation, p. 607
9.6.2 Packed-Bed Reactors, p. 609
9.6.3 Bubble-Column Bioreactors, p. 610
9.6.4 Fluidized-Bed Bioreactors, p. 614
9.6.5 Trickle-Bed Reactors, p. 617
9.7 Fermentation Technology, p. 620
9.7.1 Medium Formulation, p. 620
9.7.2 Design and Operation of a Typical Aseptic, Aerobic
Fermentation Process, p. 622
9.7.3 Alternate Bioreactor Configurations, p. 626
9.8 Animal and Plant Cell Reactor Technology, p. 630
9.8.1 Environmental Requirements for Animal Cell Cultivation, p. 631
9.8.2 Reactors for Large-Scale Production Using Animal Cells, p. 633
9.8.3 Plant Cell Cultivation, p. 641
9.9 Concluding Remarks, p. 643
Problems, p. 644
References, p. 653
Chapter 10 Instrumentation and Control, p. 658
10.1 Physical and Chemical Sensors for the Medium
and Gases, p. 658
10.1.1 Sensors of the Physical Environment, p. 659
10.1.2 Medium Chemical Sensors, p. 661
Example 10.1: Electrochemical Determination of kta, p. 664
10.1.3 Gas Analysis, p. 669
10.2 On-Line Sensors for Cell Properties, p. 670
10.3 Off-Line Analytical Methods, p. 674
10.3.1 Measurements of Medium Properties, p. 674
10.3.2 Analysis of Cell Population Composition, p. 676
10.4 Computers and Interfaces, p. 684
10.4.1 Elements of Digital Computers, p. 685
10.4.2 Computer Interfaces and Peripheral Devices, p. 687
10.4.3 Software Systems, p. 691
10.5 Data Analysis, p. 693
10.5.1 Data Smoothing and Interpolation, p. 693
10.5.2 State and Parameter Estimation, p. 695
10.6 Process Control, p. 698
10.6.1 Direct Regulatory Control, p. 698
10.6.2 Cascade Control of Metabolism, p. 700
10.7 Advanced Control Strategies, p. 703
10.7.1 Programmed Batch Bioreaction, p. 704
10.7.2 Design and Operating Strategies for Batch Plants, p. 711
10.7.3 Continuous Process Control, p. 713
10.8 Concluding Remarks, p. 717
Problems, p. 718
References, p. 722


Chapter 11 Product Recovery Operations, p. 726
Recovery of Particulates: Cells and Solid Particles, p. 728
11.1.1 Filtration, p. 730
11.1.2 Centrifugation, p. 733
11.1.3 Sedimentation, p. 734
11.1.4 Emerging Technologies for Cell Recovery, p. 736
11.1.5 Summary, p. 738
11.1.6 Product Isolation, p. 738
11.2.1 Extraction, p. 738
11.2.1.1 Solvent Extraction, p. 739
11.2.1.2 Extraction using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems, p. 741
11.2.2 Sorption, p. 741
Precipitation, p. 745
Example 11.1: Procedures for Isolation of Enzymes from
Isolated Cells, p. 749
11.3.1 Kinetics of Precipitate Formation, p. 749
11.4 Chromatography and Fixed-Bed Adsorption: Batch Processing
with Selective Adsorbates, p. 753
11.5 Membrane Separations, p. 764
11.5.1 Reverse Osmosis, p. 764
11.5.2 Ultrafiltration, p. 767
11.6 Electrophoresis, p. 770
11.7 Combined Operations, p. 770
11.7.1 Immobilization, p. 772
11.7.2 Whole Broth Processing, p. 772
11.7.3 Mass Recycle, p. 774
11. 8 Product Recovery Trains, p. 775
11.8.1 Commercial Enzymes, p.776
11.8.2 Intracellular Foreign Proteins from Recombinant E. coli, p. 778
11.8.3 Polysaccharide and Biogum Recovery, p. 782
11.8.4 Antibiotics, p. 782
11.8.5 Organic Acids, p. 785
11.8.6 Ethanol, p. 786
11.8.7 Single-Cell Protein, p. 786
Summary, p. 788
Problems, p. 789
References, p. 796
Chapter 12 Bioprocess Economics, p. 798
12.1 Process Economics, p. 799
12.2 Bioproduct Regulation, p. 801
12.3 General Fermentation Process Economics, p. 802
12.4 A Complete Example, p. 804
12.5 Fine Chemicals, p. 815
12.5.1 Enzymes, p. 816
12.5.2 Proteins via Recombinant DNA, p. 816
12.5.3 Antibiotics, p. 818
12.5.4 Vitamins, Alkaloids, Nucleosides, Steroids, p. 822
12.5.5 Monoclonal Antibodies (MAb), p. 826

12.6 Bulk Oxygenates, p. 827
12.6.1 Brewing and Wine Making, p. 830
12.6.2 Fuel Alcohol Production, p. 831
12.6.3 Organic and Amino Acid Manufacture, p. 835
12.7 Single-Cell Protein (SCP), p. 839
12.8 Anaerobic Methane Production, p. 847
12.9 Overview, p. 849
Problems, p. 849
References, p. 852
Chapter 13 Analysis of Multiple Interacting Microbial
Populations, p. 854
13.1 Neutralism, Mutualism, Commensalism, and Amensalism, p. 854
13.2 Classification of Interactions Between Two Species, p. 860
Example 13.1: Two-Species Dynamics near a Steady State, p. 862
13.3 Competition: Survival of the Fittest, p. 864
13.3.1 Volterra’s Analysis of Competition, p. 865
13.3.2 Competition and Selection in a Chemostat, p. 867
Example 13.2: Competitive Growth in Unstable Recombinant
Cultures, p. 870
13.4 Predation and Parasitism, p. 871
13.4.1 The Lotka-Volterra Model of Predator-Prey Oscillations, p. 872
13.4.2 A Multispecies Extension of the Lotka-Volterra Model, p. 876
13.4.3 Other One-Predator-One-Prey Models, p. 876
Example 13.3: Model Discrimination and Development via Stability
Analysis, p. 879
13.5 Effects of the Number of Species and Their Web of Interactions, p. 883
13.5.1 Trophic Levels, Food Chains, and Food Webs: Definitions
and an Example, p. 883
13.5.2 Population Dynamics in Models of Mass-Action Form, p. 885
Example 13.4: An Application of the Mass-Action Theory, p. 888
13.5.3 Qualitative Stability, p. 888
Example 13.5: Qualitative Stability of a Simple Food Web, p. 889
13.5.4 Stability of Large, Randomly Constructed Food Webs, p. 890
13.5.5 Bifurcation and Complicated Dynamics, p. 892
13.6 Spatial Patterns, p. 892
Problems, p. 896
References, p. 900
Chapter 14 Mixed Microbial Populations in Applications
and Natural Systems, p. 903
14.1 Uses of Well-Defined Mixed Populations, p. 903
Example 14.1: Enhanced Growth of Methane-Utilizing
Pseudomonas sp. due to Mutualistic Interactions
in a Chemostat, p. 907
14.2 Spoilage and Product Manufacture by Spontaneous Mixed
Cultures, p. 911
14.3 Microbial Participation in the Natural Cycles of Matter, p. 913
14.3.1 Overall Cycles of the Elements of Life, p. 914
14.3.2 Interrelationships of Microorganisms in the Soil and
Other Natural Ecosystems, p. 916
14.4 Biological Wastewater Treatment, p. 919
14.4.1 Wastewater Characteristics, p. 923
14.4.2 The Activated-Sludge Process, p. 926
14.4.3 Design and Modeling of Activated-Sludge Processes, p. 929
14.4.4 Aerobic Digestion, p. 938
14.4.5 Nitrification, p. 938
Example 14.2: Nitrification Design, p. 939
14.4.6 Secondary Treatment Using a Trickling Biological Filter, p. 940
14.4.7 Anaerobic Digestion, p. 943
14.4.8 Mathematical Modeling of Anaerobic-Digester Dynamics, p. 946
Example 14.3: Simulation Studies of Control Strategies for
Anaerobic Digesters, p. 954
14.4.9 Anaerobic Denitrification, p. 957
14.4.10 Phosphate Removal, p. 957
Problems, p. 958
References, p. 963
Index, p. 965

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